Table 1

Characteristics of the study population by diabetes status and race, ARIC visit 2 (1990–1992)

No diagnosed diabetesDiagnosed diabetes
White (n = 8,096)Black (n = 2,277)P value*White (n = 425)Black (n = 302)P value*
Age, years57.3 (5.6)56.2 (5.7)<0.00158.7 (5.7)57.6 (5.7)0.013
Male sex43.9%35.8%<0.00148.0%29.5%<0.001
Less than HS education13.9%35.0%<0.00124.2%44.0%<0.001
Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)21.7%41.5%<0.00147.5%55.0%0.048
Current smoking20.5%24.5%<0.00117.9%21.2%0.265
Current drinking66.2%36.8%<0.00148.5%21.5%<0.001
Family history of diabetes21.9%25.0%0.00241.9%41.1%0.824
Hypertension29.4%51.4%<0.00151.3%64.9%<0.001
Antihypertensive medication use21.7%40.3%<0.00142.6%57.0%<0.001
Systolic BP, mmHg118.8 (17.4)125.5 (19.9)<0.001125.2 (17.2)127.9 (20.1)0.052
Systolic BP ≥140 mmHg11.7%21.0%<0.00119.8%22.2%0.428
Diastolic BP, mmHg71.2 (9.7)75.7 (10.8)<0.00170.8 (9.7)73.0 (9.7)0.003
Diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg3.8%10.1%<0.0013.3%4.3%0.478
HDL-c, mg/dL50.1 (16.6)54.5 (17.0)<0.00142.1 (12.8)49.1 (13.6)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL209.0 (37.4)208.9 (40.0)0.921208.7 (39.2)217.5 (45.6)0.005
LDL-c, mg/dL132.8 (35.6)133.7 (38.3)0.281132.6 (35.2)141.4 (42.7)0.003
Triglycerides, mg/dL130.7 (64.5)103.5 (50.0)<0.001169.5 (75.3)134.8 (68.3)<0.001
Cholesterol-lowering medication use5.5%2.8%<0.00112.9%5.0%<0.001
Glucose-lowering medications61.5%76.5%<0.001
eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m21.2%1.1%0.6702.4%4.6%0.090
Prevalent retinopathy§1.6%3.3%<0.00119.6%30.7%0.005
Baecke sport index2.5 (0.8)2.2 (0.7)<0.0012.4 (0.8)2.1 (0.6)<0.001
  • Data are mean (SD) or percentages.

  • BP, blood pressure; HS, high school; IQR, interquartile range.

  • *Two-sided P values calculated using the Student t test for continuous variables and the χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • †Hypertension defined as diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or antihypertensive medication use.

  • ‡Among persons with diabetes, 13 black and 22 white participants are missing a response to self-reported use of glucose-lowering medication.

  • §Retinopathy was assessed at visit 3 (1993–1995) and therefore was available for only a subset of the main study population (176 blacks and 317 whites among participants with diagnosed diabetes; 1,516 blacks and 6,561 whites among participants without diagnosed diabetes).

  • ‖The Baecke sport index is a score of sport index during leisure time, with values ranging from 1 to 5, based on intensity (light, moderate, heavy); time (hours per week); and proportion (months per year) of activity. Higher values indicate higher levels of physical activity.