Table 2

Baseline characteristics by BP, LDL-C, HbA1c, and composite (BP, LDL-C, HbA1c) targets among subjects with DM from the pooled cohort

BPLDL-CHbA1cComposite target
At target (<130/80 mmHg) (N = 844)Not at target (≥130/80 mmHg) (N = 1,174)At target (<2.6 mmol/L [100 mg/dL]) (N = 647)Not at target (≥2.6 mmol/L [100 mg/dL]) (N = 1,371)At target (<53.0 mmol/mol [7%]) (N = 845)Not at target (≥53.0 mmol/mol [7%]) (N = 1,173)At target (N = 146)Not at target (N = 1,872)
Age, years60.3 ± 8.459.9 ± 10.661.8 ± 10.459.3 ± 9.3§61.3 ± 10.459.3 ± 9.2§62.5 ± 9.459.9 ± 9.8†
Male386 (45.7%)484 (41.2%)*305 (47.1%)565 (41.2%)*383 (45.3%)487 (41.5%)79 (54.1%)791 (42.3%)†
African American344 (40.8%)760 (64.7%)§330 (51.0%)774 (56.5%)*434 (51.4%)670 (57.1%)*49 (33.6%)1,055 (56.4%)§
Current smoker157 (18.6%)147 (12.5%)§95 (14.7%)209 (15.2%)127 (15.0%)177 (15.11)†25 (17.1%)279 (14.9%)*
Family history of CVD429 (50.8%)619 (52.7%)337 (52.1%)711 (51.8%)434 (51.4%)614 (52.3%)76 (52.1%)972 (51.9%)
DM duration, years10.6 ± 9.39.4 ± 8.7*10.4 ± 9.59.6 ± 8.7*8.7 ± 9.310.6 ± 8.7‡10.9 ± 10.89.8 ± 8.8
Systolic BP, mmHg114.0 ± 9.8145.2 ± 17.6§130.5 ± 20.3132.9 ± 21.8*131.4 ± 21.2132.7 ± 21.5113.7 ± 9.8133.6 ± 21.4§
Diastolic BP, mmHg65.6 ± 7.581.9 ± 12.7§73.6 ± 13.075.8 ± 13.6‡74.9 ± 13.575.2 ± 13.564.6 ± 8.575.9 ± 13.5§
LDL-C, mmol/L (mg/dL)3.04 ± 0.99 (117.1 ± 37.9)3.18 ± 1.00† (122.3 ± 38.5)2.09 ± 0.39 (80.5 ± 14.9)3.61 ± 0.82§ (138.8 ± 31.1)2.98 ± 0.94 (114.4 ± 36.5)3.24 ± 1.03§ (124.2 ± 39.1)2.05 ± 0.38 (79.2 ± 14.7)3.22 ± 0.99§ (123.3 ± 37.7)
HDL-C, mmol/L (mg/dL)1.14 ± 0.36 (45.7 ± 14.4)1.18 ± 0.34* (47.2 ± 13.6)1.18 ± 0.38 (47.0 ± 15.1)1.16 ± 0.34 (46.4 ± 13.4)1.20 ± 0.37 (47.9 ± 14.6)1.14.3 ± 0.34§ (45.7 ± 13.5)1.15 ± 0.39 (45.9 ± 15.7)1.17 ± 0.35 (46.7 ± 13.8)
HbA1c, mmol/mol (%)59.1 ± 15.9 (7.8 ± 2.1)59.1 ± 15.1 (7.8 ± 2.0)56.0 ± 12.9 (7.4 ± 1.7)60.6 ± 15.9§ (8.0 ± 2.1)45.4 ± 3.8 (6.1 ± 0.5)68.1 ± 13.6§ (9.0 ± 1.8)45.4 ± 3.8 (6.1 ± 0.5)59.8 ± 15.1§ (7.9 ± 2.0)
BMI, kg/m230.8 ± 6.432.5 ± 6.8§31.5 ± 6.731.9 ± 6.731.3 ± 6.732.2 ± 6.7†30.5 ± 6.231.9 ± 6.7*
Hypertension medication470 (55.7%)868 (73.9%)§457 (70.6%)881 (64.3%)†559 (66.2%)779 (66.4%)87 (59.6%)1,251 (66.8%)
Antidiabetes medication686 (81.3%)934 (79.6%)545 (84.2%)1,075 (78.4%)‡594 (70.3%)1,026 (87.5%)§113 (77.4%)1,507 (80.5%)
Lipid-lowering medication202 (23.9%)241 (20.5%)225 (34.8%)218 (15.9%)§197 (23.3%)246 (21.0%)54 (37.0%)389 (20.8%)§
BP <130/80 mmHg844 (100%)298 (46.1%)546 (39.8%)†356 (42.1%)488 (41.6%)146 (100%)
LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)298 (35.3%)349 (29.7%)†647 (100%)318 (37.6%)329 (28.1%)§146 (100%)
HbA1c <53.0 mmol/mol (7%)356 (42.2%)489 (41.7%)318 (49.2%)527 (38.4%)§845 (100%)146 (100%)
HDL-C <1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) (male) or <1.3 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) (female)386 (45.7%)589 (50.2%)*304 (47.0%)671 (48.9%)449 (53.1%)526 (44.8%)‡63 (43.2%)912 (48.7%)
Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)414 (49.1%)729 (62.1%)§368 (56.1%)808 (56.6%)438 (51.8%)705 (60.1%)‡68 (46.6%)1,075 (57.4%)*
  • Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± SD, and categorical variables are expressed as frequencies (%). BP, LDL-C, HbA1c, and HDL-C cut points are per previously recommended American Diabetes Association targets. DM duration data were available in 602 ARIC study participants, 457 MESA participants, and 348 JHS participants.

  • *P < 0.05, †P < 0.01, ‡P < 0.001, §P < 0.0001 compared with those at target.