Table 1

Characteristics at the time of enrollment into the Look AHEAD trial of participants who had successful MRI scans in the Look AHEAD Brain study, by intervention assignment

DSE (n = 155)ILI (n = 164)P value
Age, years0.50
 45–5444 (28.4)40 (24.4)
 55–6491 (58.7)96 (58.5)
 65–7620 (12.9)28 (17.1)
Female sex114 (73.5)110 (67.1)0.21
Race/ethnicity0.70
 African American37 (23.9)33 (20.1)
 Non-Hispanic white110 (71.0)123 (75.0)
 Other/multiple8 (5.2)8 (4.9)
Education, years0.61
 <1324 (16.1)30 (18.8)
 13–1658 (38.9)54 (33.8)
 >1667 (45.0)76 (47.5)
BMI, kg/m20.046
 25–2918 (11.6)32 (19.5)
 30–3999 (63.9)106 (64.6)
 ≥4038 (24.5)26 (15.9)
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)0.58
 <7.0 (53)65 (42.5)73 (44.8)
 7.0–8.9 (53–74)75 (49.0)81 (49.7)
 ≥9.0 (75)13 (8.5)9 (5.5)
Diabetes duration, years0.97
 <573 (47.7)76 (47.5)
 ≥580 (52.3)84 (52.5)
Insulin use20 (13.6)18 (11.5)0.57
Hypertension129 (83.2)135 (82.3)0.83
Prior cardiovascular disease13 (8.4)13 (7.9)0.88
Depressive symptoms0.77
 BDI score <11135 (87.7)142 (86.6)
 BDI score ≥1119 (12.3)22 (13.4)
Antidepressant use28 (19.0)32 (20.4)0.77
Alcohol intake, drinks/day0.56
 <1143 (92.3)154 (93.9)
 ≥112 (7.7)10 (6.1)
Baseline smoking status0.97
 Never77 (49.7)83 (50.9)
 Past72 (46.5)74 (45.4)
 Current6 (3.9)6 (3.7)
Fitness, METs0.07
 <7.184 (54.2)72 (43.9)
 ≥7.171 (45.8)92 (56.1)
Paffenbarger activity questionnaire score0.72
 <1,06073 (47.1)70 (42.7)
 ≥1,06035 (22.6)41 (25.0)
 Not collected47 (30.3)53 (32.3)
ApoE4 alleles, n0.008
 0110 (71.0)100 (61.0)
 122 (14.2)47 (28.7)
 22 (1.3)0 (0.0)
 Not collected21 (13.6)17 (10.4)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. No participants had a history of stroke at enrollment in the Look AHEAD trial. BDI, Beck Depression Inventory.