Table 1

Comparison of diabetes in Pima Indians and Asian Indians

Pima IndiansAsian Indians (Chennai, India)
Prevalence of diabetes*Very high (50% by age 55 years)Very high (50% by age 55 years)
Obesity profileVery obese (mean BMI 33.7 kg/m2, mean waist circumference 108.6 cm)Relatively thinner (mean BMI 25.7 kg/m2, mean waist circumference 83.1 cm)
Glucose profileHigher mean 2-h plasma glucoseHigher mean fasting plasma glucose
Prediabetes distributionNearly two-thirds of prediabetes is isolated IGTOver two-thirds of prediabetes is isolated IFG
Insulin resistance vs. secretion2–4.5 times more insulin resistant than Asian Indians across BMI and glucose strataOne-half to one-third of insulin secretion in Pima Indians across BMI and glucose strata
  • * Data from Gila River Indian community in Arizona cohort (96), data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study (U. Gujral, personal communication), and comparisons between the Gila River Indian community in Arizona and the CARRS surveillance study (97).