Table 1

Baseline characteristics of ARIC participants with diabetes, without prevalent HF, CHD, and stroke, by categories of conventional diabetes complications/ECG/cardiac biomarker

Overall No markers of riskOnly conventional/ECG Only cardiac biomarker Both P
n (%)1,510725 (48)356 (24)186 (12)243 (16)
Age (years)63 ± 662 ± 562 ± 565 ± 6*^65 ± 6*^<0.001
Female525161*49^44^<0.001
African American312943*19*^30^#<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)31.2 ± 5.831.0 ± 5.731.5 ± 6.131.3 ± 5.931.0 ± 5.30.67
Waist-to-hip ratio0.98 ± 0.060.97 ± 0.060.98 ± 0.060.98 ± 0.070.98 ± 0.060.20
Low education252131*17^32*#<0.001
Cigarettes (pack-years)2 (0, 26)1 (0, 24)1 (0, 26)6 (0, 26)3 (0, 34)0.40
Hypertension605068*59^76*^#<0.001
SBP (mmHg)132 ± 18128 ± 16134 ± 18*132 ± 18139 ± 23*^#<0.001
DBP (mmHg)71 ± 1071 ± 971 ± 1170 ± 1170 ± 120.85
Antihypert. Rx574764*57*77*^#<0.001
Triglyceride (mg/dL)142 (100, 206)137 (100, 203)148 (101, 206)139 (103, 205)142 (103, 213)0.41
LDL (mg/dL)122 ± 34125 ± 34122 ± 34119 ± 30118 ± 380.042
Total-to-HDL chol. ratio4.8 ± 1.64.8 ± 1.44.8 ± 1.64.8 ± 1.64.9 ± 1.90.75
Lipid-lowering Rx16161610^23*#0.002
Aspirin Rx56545658590.48
Creatinine (mg/dL)0.89 ± 0.570.84 ± 0.180.85 ± 0.240.86 ± 0.181.13 ± 1.33*^#<0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)93 ± 1998 ± 1494 ± 20*91 ± 14*79 ± 24*^#<0.001
UACR (mg/g)4.3 (1.5, 12.9)3.0 (1.2, 6.7)7.5 (2.0, 45.6)*4.2 (1.7, 8.6)17.6 (4.0, 90.9)*^#<0.001
Glucose (mg/dL)137 (117, 180)133 (116, 170)151 (126, 209)*134 (113, 168)^135 (116, 177)<0.001
Longer diabetes durationç383144*37^51*^#<0.001
Drug therapy for diabetes443653*38^57*^#<0.001
Insulin15923*10^26*#<0.001
ABI1.14 ± 0.161.18 ± 0.131.08 ± 0.19*1.18 ± 0.14^1.10 ± 0.19*#<0.001
hs-TnT (ng/L)6 (3, 10)5 (3, 7)6 (3, 8)10 (5, 17)*^14 (7, 20)*^#<0.001
NTproBNP (pg/mL)54 (25, 107)39 (20, 67)43 (23, 73)149 (51, 212)*^192 (120, 356)*^#<0.001
Retinopathy133532
Nephropathy194058
PAD82516
Abnormal ECG122241
NTproBNP >125 pg/mL206574
TnT ≥14 ng/L144352
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (25th, 75th percentiles), or percentage unless otherwise indicated. Retinopathy: ≥1 sign of retinopathy according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. Nephropathy: eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. PAD: ABI <0.9 at visit 4 (or 1 or 3 if not available at visit 4), hospitalization for PAD prior to visit 4, or intermittent claudication symptoms at follow-up questionnaire before visit 4. ECG abnormalities: ventricular conduction defect, left ventricular hypertrophy, isolated major ST-T wave abnormalities, or presence of atrial fibrillation. Antihypert., antihypertension; chol., cholesterol; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; Rx, prescription; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • ‡Low education level defined as less than high school degree.

  • çLonger duration of diabetes: disease diagnosed at the first ARIC study visit.

  • †Hypertension defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or current use of any antihypertension medications.

  • *P < 0.05 compared with absence of all markers/measures.

  • ^P < 0.05 compared with only conventional measures/abnormal ECG.

  • #P < 0.05 compared with only cardiac biomarkers.