Table 1

Participant characteristics by baseline diabetes and HbA1c category: the ARIC study, visit 2 (1990–1992)

No history of diagnosed diabetesDiagnosed diabetes
HbA1c <5.7%HbA1c 5.7 to <6.5%: prediabetesHbA1c ≥6.5%: undiagnosed diabetesHbA1c <7.0%HbA1c ≥7.0%
n9,2672,441553422839
Age (years), mean (SD)56.5 (5.7)58.0 (5.7)57.8 (5.7)58.5 (5.7)58.4 (5.7)
Female, %56.152.558.253.657.7
Race, %
 White84.460.149.666.151.3
 Black15.639.950.533.948.8
Education, %
 <High school16.430.334.535.637.4
 High school, GED, or vocational school43.338.635.438.237.9
 College, graduate, or professional school40.331.130.027.324.7
Income ($), %
 <35,000/year44.960.865.666.870.0
 ≥35,000/year49.633.326.427.023.8
 Not reported5.56.08.06.26.2
Health insurance, %93.788.582.588.285.3
Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2, %34.745.545.953.152.1
Smoking status, %
 Never40.734.338.938.945.7
 Former38.636.137.337.737.7
 Current20.729.623.923.516.7
Alcohol consumption, %
 Never20.424.430.026.533.3
 Former17.226.128.933.436.8
 Current62.549.541.140.129.9
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)27.0 (4.8)29.2 (5.8)32.4 (6.1)29.9 (5.9)31.4 (6.0)
Hypertension, %28.944.257.054.863.1
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD)119.4 (18.1)124.5 (19.1)128.1 (17.7)127.2 (20.7)128.4 (20.3)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD)71.8 (10.2)73.3 (10.2)74.2 (10.4)71.2 (10.2)71.0 (10.4)
Hypertension medication use, %25.841.757.054.863.1
Coronary heart disease, %4.57.16.510.714.9
Total cholesterol (mg/dL), mean (SD)207.6 (38.0)213.3 (39.9)217.6 (42.1)206.3 (40.0)217.8 (49.4)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL), mean (SD)51.4 (17.2)46.9 (14.9)42.9 (13.8)44.8 (14.6)42.4 (14.4)
Cholesterol medication use, %5.67.17.610.711.7
Estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, %1.42.42.96.96.8
Mortality by end of follow-up, %23.738.842.748.663.4