Table 3

Consistency of intervention group differences among prespecified subgroups: age, history of cardiovascular disease, and duration of type 2 diabetes

Intervention (DSE/ILI) effect or percentage differenceInteraction P value
Mean (SE)95% CI
Gray matter volume, cc
 Age at baseline, years0.78
  45–54−5.93 (6.49)−18.70 to 6.84
  55–64−1.48 (4.35)−10.05 to 7.08
  65–761.12 (8.76)−16.11 to 18.36
 Diabetes duration, years0.97
  <50.13 (5.45)−10.61 to 10.86
  ≥50.44 (5.20)−9.79 to 10.66
History of cardiovascular disease0.61
  No−0.66 (3.86)−8.25 to 6.93
  Yes6.26 (12.96)−19.24 to 31.75
White matter volume, cc
 Age at baseline, years0.68
  45–540.48 (3.79)−6.98 to 7.94
  55–64−2.09 (5.54)−7.09 to 2.92
  65–762.39 (5.12)−7.68 to 12.46
 Diabetes duration, years0.16
  <51.40 (2.83)−4.17 to 6.97
  ≥5−4.06 (2.70)−9.36 to 1.25
 History of cardiovascular disease0.44
  No−0.44 (2.03)−4.44 to 3.55
  Yes−5.94 (6.83)−19.37 to 7.49
Total brain volume, cc
 Age at baseline, years0.56
  45–54−4.31 (5.70)−15.52 to 6.90
  55–64−2.12 (3.82)−9.64 to 5.40
  65–765.72 (7.69)−9.40 to 20.84
 Diabetes duration, years0.73
  <51.41 (4.80)−8.03 to 10.86
  ≥5−0.89 (4.57)−9.89 to 8.11
 History of cardiovascular disease0.76
  No0.68 (3.39)−6.00 to 7.36
  Yes−2.94 (11.41)−25.39 to 19.50
White matter hyperintensity volume,* % cc
 Age at baseline, years0.72
  45–54−35 (18)−63 to 13
  55–64−19 (16)−37 to −13
  65–76−33 (24)−70 to 34
 Diabetes duration, years0.03
  <57 (23) −30 to 64
  ≥5−44 (12)−63 to −16
 History of cardiovascular disease0.12
  No−29 (11)−47 to −4
  Yes66 (86) −60 to 359
Ventricle volume,* % cc
 Age at baseline, years0.42
  45–54−16 (7)−30 to −1
  55–64−5 (6) −15 to 7
  65–76−5 (11)−24 to 20
 Diabetes duration, years0.08
  <51 (7)−12 to 16
  ≥5−14 (6)−25 to −3
 History of cardiovascular disease0.16
  No−8 (4)−17 to 1
  Yes17 (19)−15 to 62
  • Covariate adjustment was made for intracranial volume and clinic site.

  • *Log-transformed volumes are presented as back-transformed mean (SE).