Table 1

Results of tests performed at baseline, during hypoglycemia, and at the first recovery test

ConditionTestControlSleep deprivedDifference between conditionsExperimental order effect
MeanSDMeanSDPCohen’s dPη2p
Baseline (normoglycemia)Willpower25.34.423.75.50.390.320.090.226
Baseline batteryMod hypo symptom scale24.88.428.811.30.31−0.400.790.007
Digit symbol substitution87.718.381.817.40.160.330.140.186
Choice reaction time449.059.0459.061.00.74−
HypoglycemiaHypo 1 batteryMod hypo symptom score36.614.038.316.00.98−
Digit symbol substitution68.714.267.513.40.800.090.800.006
Choice reaction time503.088.0518.0100.00.80−
Logical memory (immediate)14.04.711.
Visual elevator (timing)
Working digit span backward7.−
Letter number sequencing9.−0.070.970.000
Logical memory (delayed 1)
Hypo 2 batteryMod hypo symptom scale43.213.345.917.00.81−
Digit symbol substitution73.312.266.916.60.220.440.450.054
Choice reaction time515.0109.0513.0100.00.590.020.650.022
Recovery (normoglycemia)Rec 1 batteryMod hypo symptom scale25.15.829.
Digit symbol substitution86.116.678.416.80.140.460.070.263
Choice reaction time451.056.0475.073.00.16−0.370.860.003
Logical memory (delayed 2)
  • Differences between conditions were calculated using a general linear model comparing sleep deprived with non–sleep deprived, with experimental order as a between-subject factor. Hypo battery, general cognitive tests performed at start (1) and end (2) of hypoglycemia; Rec 1, first recovery time point (10 min); mod hypo symptom score, modified hypoglycemia symptom score (see text). Significantly different data appear in boldface.