Table 3

Adjusted HRs (95% CI) for CVD and CHD events among subjects with DM by status of individual and composite risk factor targets

Risk factor comparisonIncident CVD eventsIncident CHD events
HR (95% CI), unadjustedHR (95% CI), adjusted for covariatesHR (95% CI), adjusted for propensity scoreHR (95% CI), unadjustedHR (95% CI), adjusted for covariatesHR (95% CI), adjusted for propensity score
Individual risk factor controlled
 BP <130/80 mmHg vs. BP ≥130/80 mmHg0.81 (0.69–0.95)*0.83 (0.70–0.98)*0.81 (0.68–0.96)*0.86 (0.70–1.05)0.83 (0.67–1.02)0.78 (0.63–0.97)*
 LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) vs. LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)0.71 (0.58–0.86)‡0.67 (0.54–0.82)§0.71 (0.58–0.87)‡0.64 (0.49–0.83)‡0.59 (0.45–0.77)‡0.62 (0.48–0.81)‡
 HbA1c <53.0 mmol/mol (7%) vs. HbA1c ≥53.0 mmol/mol (7%)0.64 (0.54–0.76)§0.63 (0.53–0.76)§0.70 (0.58–0.84)§0.68 (0.54–0.84)‡0.64 (0.51–0.81)‡0.74 (0.59–0.93)*
Number of risk factors at target
 Any one (BP, LDL-C, HbA1c) at target vs. none at target0.67 (0.56–0.80)§0.64 (0.53–0.77)§0.65 (0.54–0.78)§0.65 (0.52–0.82)‡0.59 (0.47–0.75)§0.60 (0.47–0.76)§
 Any two (BP, LDL-C, HbA1c) at target vs. none at target0.52 (0.41–0.64)§0.48 (0.38–0.61)§0.47 (0.38–0.60)§0.51 (0.38–0.68)§0.44 (0.33–0.59)§0.42 (0.32–0.57)§
 All three (BP, LDL-C, HbA1c) at target vs. none at target0.46 (0.30–0.69)‡0.38 (0.25–0.58)§0.41 (0.27–0.62)§0.53 (0.32–0.88)*0.40 (0.24–0.67)‡0.41 (0.25–0.70)‡
  • Covariates include age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, HDL-C, BMI, family history of premature CVD, hypertension medication, antidiabetes and lipid-lowering medication (also include LDL-C and HbA1c for BP analysis; systolic/diastolic BP and HbA1c for LDL-C analysis; LDL-C and systolic/diastolic BP for HbA1c analysis).

  • *P < 0.05, ‡P < 0.001, §P < 0.0001.